Tuesday, August 4, 2020

Bible Study for Atheists

Bible Study for Atheists This essay is not an attack on faith. It’s goal is to persuade non-believers that The Bible is a worthy book for study. Among my skeptical friends, most shun any  mention of  The Bible or Christianity. I suppose they’re afraid of being converted. That’s a shame, because understanding The Bible can provide useful knowledge of history, anthropology, sociology, psychology,  literature, philosophy,  language, memory, writing,  textual analysis, and information theory. Studying ancient texts takes us back to the border of history and prehistory, when writing first recorded oral tales that might have been around for hundreds or thousands of years. Understanding The Bible explains many of the memes of Western civilization, and it provides symbolic  keys for communicating with  people of faith. As an atheist I find Bible study a good tool for developing empathy with my religious friends, and a way to understand biblical allusions in art and literature. Religious people study The Bible to interpret a metaphysical view of reality. Non-religious people study The Bible to understand the evolution of human thought. Because the scope of Bible study is so vast, and I want to keep this first  essay short, I’m only going to introduce one writer: Bart D. Erhman. Ehrmans books on The New Testament are an excellent place to start because they cover a compelling range of scholarship topics and methods of analysis. His books are easy to read. More compelling than Dan Brown. Each book takes a different focus, and if you read all six, they provide a multiplex view of The New Testament.  The content Ehrman covers is standard subject matter at many theological seminaries, however I don’t recommend them to the faithful. Although Ehrman started out as an Evangelical, his obsessive  quest to understand  The Bible led him dissect it like an anatomy professor. That can be disturbing for believers, but wonderful for people like me who love taking machines apart to see how they work. The six books I’m going to cover are Misquoting Jesus (2005), Jesus, Interrupted (2009), Forged (2011), Did Jesus Exist? (2012),  How Jesus Became God  (2014), and Jesus Before the Gospels (2016). All these books were written for a popular audience.  They are about The New Testament, which is an easier place to start studying The Bible,  than  The Old Testament,  which is harder to fathom and further distant in time.  Characters in The New Testament are easier to relate to for modern people. The Old Testament needs a lot more scholarship to understand its complexity in context, but is endlessly fascinating for comprehending some of humanitys oldest recorded thoughts, and early speculation about reality. The value of Misquoting Jesus  is showing how a work of antiquity gets into our modern hands. Remember, all the lessons Ehrman teaches us about Bible study can be applied to any ancient work. How  were the books of The New Testament    written, who wrote them, in what language, and how did copies survive until modern times? Jesus lived over two thousand years ago. Are the quotes we read in red letters in The New Testament really his actual words? The gospels were written decades after Jesus died, by people writing in a different language than he spoke, to be read by us in a third language. For the first 1400 years, before the printing press, the gospels  were copied by hand, endlessly recopied,  passing  from town to town. Misquoting Jesus explores the problems of accurately remembering speeches from two millenniums ago. Jesus, Interrupted is about scholarship and trying to understand what the gospels say. How do we interpret the truth from four books that give different versions of the same story, sometimes contradicting each other. Are they historically accurate, or parables for interpretation? Do they use the same source material? Are they based on eye witness accounts, or second, third, or later retellings? Are the authors of the gospels the disciples they are named after? Is there any external evidence to corroborate these stories? Did each gospel writer have a reason to add content to the source material? This book is about textual analysis and those techniques could be used in studying any book. Forged is about why some of the books in The New Testament might be forgeries. Ehrman makes a case that 11 or more of the 27 books of The New Testament were written by people other than who we traditionally believe wrote them. Why, is rather complicated, and requires understanding the nature of authorship back then. Few people knew how to read back in those times, much less write. And there were people who could write but not read. Writers often wrote posing as another person for a reason. This book has many modern parallels to the internet and how information is spread. Did Jesus Exist? covers all the historical sources we have to document the life of Jesus. Outside of the gospels, there’s practically nothing. Ehrman makes a case that the gospels themselves are indeed historical sources. Ehrman  chronicles the history of  writers who have tried to prove Jesus never existed, and then provides his own analysis of why Jesus probably was a real, historical person. The lesson from this volume is we have very little concrete evidence for anyone  existing in the distant past. It also shows all the recent “biographies” of Jesus are probably 100% speculation. The techniques Ehrman uses to document Jesus in history could be applied to Plato or Cleopatra, or any person we think we know from the past. In How Jesus Became God, Ehrman tracks the transformation of an ordinary man into God. Did Jesus the individual believe himself to be God while he was alive? What proof do we have that any evidence for the historical Jesus is valid? How and why did his followers decide he wasnt a man? Why did they make him into God? How did they do it? And who were these people who shaped this theology? Where did all the attributes we now give Jesus come from? Ehrman works like a detective to solve a mystery, studying the evidence, showing how each generation altered the description of Jesus. Just compare this to scholarship on Abraham Lincoln, a more recent figure with abundant evidence of his life. We cant know the absolute truth so how often do we invent it? In his most recent book, Jesus Before the Gospels  Ehrman reports on memory, and how poor our memory is for recording events. This is my favorite of the six, and a valuable book for anyone wanting to write biography, historical fiction or memoir. Ehrman cites many books on memory, summarizing many case studies, which proves his point that we constantly change what we remember, even our own personal memories. After I read this book I doubted my own history. Ehrman presents a case that who Jesus was as a historical person is different from how we now remember him. That at every  step of the writing of the gospels,  through the early development of church dogma in the first three centuries of Christianity, Jesus was remembered differently. Every new creed changed Christian history. This book is a fantastic study on memory. I highly recommend it to anyone, especially for people who are confident in their self-knowledge. Even if you have no interest in Christianity, these books are worthy reads for learning how we study the past. Whether you  read or  write history, historical fiction, or memoir, these six books give a great deal to think about when telling a story thats based on the past. Think of all the biopics and biographies we’ve seen on Steve Jobs in recent years  â€" has any come close to being historically accurate? What we learn from Ehrman is how the truth is a glittery chimera we can never grasp, but we never stop trying.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Narrative Life Of Frederick Douglass - 1549 Words

The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass’ is an autobiography of Frederick Douglass, the slave who escaped and became one of renowned social reformers of his time. The book is a collection of actual experiences of the author during his time in slavery and experiences of fellow slaves. He describes brilliantly the oppressive conditions into which he was born, lived, as well as his struggles and triumphs. The author meant to make the reader comprehend life of the African Americans in slavery before the ending of slavery. He also meant to highlight the misuse of religion and to use it to control other people whom they deem inferior. The autobiography commences with the narrator explaining his place of birth: Talbot County, Maryland. One of his first inner struggles with which Douglass carried along throughout his life was the fact that had no knowledge of his birthday. The best estimate had been roughly 1818. Furthermore, he neither knew his father’s identity nor saw his mother as often as he would wish. Although he was separated from his mother at a tender age, Douglass narrates how she would sometimes sneak from a nearby plantation at night to sleep with him. His mother soon died but due to the lack of connection, her death did not have an emotional impact on him. On the other hand, it was widely speculated that his father was a white man and his captain’s first helper. Captain Anthony, as his slaves knew him, was a relatively wealthy slaveholder who did not particularly careShow MoreRelatedNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass987 Words   |  4 PagesLife of Frederick In the â€Å"narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass an American slave written by himself† Frederick reveled to audience the time he was living as a slave and the moments of brutal treats for example psychological, emotional and physical abuses. He was suffering terrible moments during his 20 years as a slave in the twentieth century. In addition, he describes in his own words the strategies he used to escape from the slave holders and to be free. This story the â€Å"Narrative of theRead MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass Essay1102 Words   |  5 PagesDate Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass Writing in the favor of black people has always remained controversial from the very beginning. Critics regard such writing as â€Å"a highly conventionalized genre† indicating that â€Å"its status as literature was long disputed but the literary merits of its most famous example such as Frederick Douglass s Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass†¦are widely recognized today.† (Ryan:537) Despite of such severe resistance, writers like Douglass have pennedRead MoreThe Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1566 Words   |  7 PagesThe â€Å"Narratives of the Life of Frederick Douglass† is the story of Frederick Douglass’ life from the time he was born into slavery, to the time he escaped to freedom in the north. When Douglass wrote this book, slavery was still legal in a large portion of the United States. After Douglass’ escape to freedom and his continuation of his education, he became an abolitionist through his works of literatu re and speeches. In â€Å"The Blessings of Slavery†, by George Fitzhugh he states that southern slavesRead MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1257 Words   |  6 PagesBook Review By Mary Elizabeth Ralls Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass: An autobiography written by Frederick Douglass Millennium publication, 1945edition 75 pages Frederick Douglass whose real name was Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey approximately birthdate is in1818, the month or day is not known, he died in 1895. He is one of the most famous advocates and the greatest leaders of anti-slavery in the past 200 or so years.Read MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass Essay1498 Words   |  6 Pagessoutherners believed that one of the most essential means of life was slavery. In the novel, Narrative of The Life of Frederick Douglass, Douglass challenges and debunks the idea of slavery being a necessary part of the white lifestyle; many pro-slavery arguments consisted of religion justifying slavery, slaves being â€Å"easily manipulated†/ignorant, and slavery keeping the southern economy from disappearing (The Proslavery Argument). Frederick uses personal experiences and other tactics to expose theRead MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1730 Words   |  7 PagesOne of the most well-known slavery narratives wa s lived and written by Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Frederick Douglass was a civil rights activist who was born into slavery on a plantation in eastern Maryland in February 1818. His exact birth date is unknown, he states in his narrative, â€Å"I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it.†2 His birth name was Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, which was given by hisRead MoreThe Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1363 Words   |  6 Pages In The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, Frederick Douglass portrays the importance of education because of its influence in leveling the playing field between the races in the 1800s. Education and knowledge are themes that are heavily dwelled upon throughout the novel, inspiring the reader to see the full power of such important ideals and to take the full advantage of both at all times. Douglass gives the reader a new appreciat ion for education as he delivers his message regardingRead MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1255 Words   |  6 PagesFrederick Douglass, throughout Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, uses religion to get many of his points across. In one way, religion plays a huge role in Douglass’ ability to become literate throughout the text. With the Bible and other Christian texts, Douglass is able to further his ability and the ability of others to read. This becomes important because as Douglass points out the slaveholders believe a literate slave is not a good slave. This union of literacy and religion show theRead MoreThe Narrative Life Of Frederick Douglass1583 Words   |  7 Pages‘The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass’ is an autobiography of Frederick Douglass, the slave who escaped and became one of renowned social reformers of his time. The book is a collection of actual experiences of the author during his time in slavery and experienc es of fellow slaves. He describes brilliantly the oppressive conditions into which he was born, lived, as well as his struggles and triumphs. The author meant to make the reader comprehend life of the African Americans in slavery beforeRead MoreThe Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass939 Words   |  4 PagesRevolutionary Freedom In 1845, an African-American man named Frederick Douglass released a thought-provoking autobiography that would become a turning point in revolutionary change. The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass was the first autobiography Douglass had written focusing on the real life struggles he has faced during his time spent in bondage. During his time, it was not common for an African-American to have the skills to read and write, and it was especially uncommon to publish

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

America Movil †The Jaguar’s Next Move Free Essays

After a deep analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of America Movil, and considering the forces that are currently driving the growth of the wireless telecom market in Latin America and the rest of the world, we have elaborated certain recommendations concerning the company’s future strategic decisions which, in our opinion, should be considered in order to consolidate the corporation’s current position as a global leader in this industry. Regarding the issue of the possible expansion of America Movil into new markets; the analysis shows that the best strategy for the company to follow, considering its current investments, assets and the forecasts for each region, is to focus on the organic growth and to continue strengthening its position in the Latin American market, where the corporation has been able to develop strong brand awareness among the consumers and where the cultural, social and economic aspects of the region represent an advantage against competitors. Regarding the possibility of a future merge between America Movil and Telmex International, there is no doubt that the synergy that both companies could generate is enormous, nevertheless, due to the basic yet significant differences in these telecom segments, the best option is to keep both companies as separate entities while allowing them to work together by the establishment of joint ventures and strategic alliances in specific projects. We will write a custom essay sample on America Movil – The Jaguar’s Next Move or any similar topic only for you Order Now Sincerely Yours, Author Organic Growth against Positioning in New Markets After quite a long â€Å"shopping spree† that lasted over seven years, from 2000 to 2007, in which America Movil invested and acquired assets all over Latin America, becoming the largest and most powerful corporation in the region; today the company needs to decide whether to continue its expansion through acquisitions – either in the same region or in different potential markets such as Europe or Asia – or to settle down and focus on getting the most out of its current investments. To determine which of these options brings the most benefits for America Movil, we will analyze several aspects of the company and the environment in which it competes, as well forecasts, opportunities and threats that come with each one of these options. Analysis of America Movil and its current position in the Latin American Market America Movil currently holds a privileged competitive position in the Latin American Market, with strong presence in 16 different countries that at the same time, share a wide variety of cultural, economical and social aspects. These common characteristics represent an advantage for America Movil against foreign competitors due to the experience and proven success of the company in positioning itself and understanding the dynamics in this region. Some of the countries in which the corporation competes, are currently in an advanced stage of development regarding the wireless market – such as Argentina, Chile, El Salvador and Uruguay, where the wireless percentage of penetration is above 85% of the population – while others represent an attractive opportunity of growth – such as Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru and Puerto Rico – where the percentage of penetration ranges from 41% to 75% of the population. The impact of these percentages can be better appreciated in exhibit 1, where it shows that the total number of potential clients in the region can be assumed to be above 150 million, a number which exceeds the total number of customers currently affiliated with America Movil – 141 million-, especially in countries such as Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, where the company already has a relatively high percentage of the market share. The total number of potential customers just in these four countries is almost 130 million, 85% of the total number of potential customers. As important as the size of the market available for this corporation, is the distribution of revenue that each one of these countries represents. This distribution can be better appreciated in exhibit 2. What the trend is showing is that the percentage of revenue from Mexico, the most important market for America Movil, is decreasing compared to other countries in which the company operates. From 2004 to 2008 the participation of Mexico has reduced from 54% to 39%, meaning that over half of the revenue of the corporation today comes from its operations in foreign markets, emphasizing their increasing importance relative to the domestic market, which importance has decreased in over 15% while the Brazilian, Caribbean, Andean and Mercosur markets have rose between 4% and 7% each. However, as we can appreciate in exhibit 3, the overall behavior of the Latin American Market shows that it has been in an important phase of growth in the past 4 years, from 2004 to 2008, where revenues have increased over 151%. These numbers together support the arguments of both, the strong position that America Movil currently has in the Latin American market, and of the success of the company in understanding the dynamics of the Latin American economy and culture; which translate in a competitive advantage over its main competitor in the region, Telefonica, and other European and North American based corporations that have struggled in positioning themselves in the countries where America Movil has established. Current Strategy in Latin America The success factors of America Movil strategy in this region can be summarized in two main categories; the penetration strategy and the positioning strategy. Penetration Strategy The penetration strategy developed by the company has been clear since the beginning; the acquisition of assets in the different Latin American countries for a low price. This strategy has benefited the corporation by providing them with the required infrastructure to operate at a relatively low cost, taking advantage of opportunities generated by the failure of other companies to develop a strong position in the market and taking advantage of the liberalization of the Latin American economies. Examples of these acquisitions are the purchase of BCP from BellSouth Corp. (USA) and Verbier (Brazil) in 2003 for $643 million and American Movil Peru from TIM International (Italy) for $503. 4 million. The main reasons for the retreat of these companies from the region were either difficulties at their domestic markets or failed business strategies, two factors that America Movil had under control, with a strong domestic market performance in Mexico and with a profitable business strategy in the region. Positioning Strategy The second factor that drove the success of the corporation in the countries where it penetrated was the positioning strategy. The strategy to obtain a strong position in the markets where it competes was developed considering the economic situation of the majority of the Latin American population, which is relatively weaker and more unstable and than the one in markets such as North America or Europe. With this in mind, America Movil developed a system of pre-paid cards, which to this date, has been the driving force of the company’s growth in the region. The advantage of this model lies in the fact that the corporation discovered that Latin Americans were more likely to become users of wireless communication services if they had the opportunity to pay for the service as they required it; avoiding long term contracts and potentially escalating debts, which, because of the unstable economical situation, could become impossible to pay. The customers were not the only ones beneficiated, since with this model, America Movil became able to considerably reduce collection costs and to avoid invoice defaults that on the long run, could have affected the revenues of the company as well as the number of their clients. There are, however, two main weaknesses in this model, the first one lying in the fact that this strategy can be relatively easily copied by its competitors and in the long run, it doesn’t represent a significant competitive advantage over them. The second disadvantage is that the revenues generated by this strategy are lower than the ones obtained by a post-paid model, which mean that its profitability is based on the volume. Nevertheless, this is currently not a problem for the company since over 83% of its customers are using the pre-paid option. Forecasts of the Wireless Market in Latin America As appreciated in exhibit 1, there are currently a huge number of unattended potential customers in the Latin American Market. This can be assumed by noticing that the overall penetration is 66%, with countries such as Argentina with an astonishing 97% penetration percentage while others important markets such as Brazil and Mexico are about 65%, a number that can be largely increased considering the pre-paid strategy used by America Movil, which simplifies and encourages the use of its service among the population. As seen in exhibit 4, according to the case, the forecast for the year 2012 expects an increase from 66% to 76% in the number of subscribers in the wireless market; this represents an increase of almost 50 million new customers, which, as analyzed earlier, are mostly expected to come from four countries: Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which combined, have a population of unsubscribed potential customers of almost 130 million, while all of the other countries barely reach 22 million. This information can help the company focus their efforts in the markets mentioned before, while maintaining a relatively stable growth in the others, focusing mostly not in attracting new customers but in increasing the profitability of each one of them. Analysis and Forecasts of the Wireless Market in the rest of the world After analyzing the benefits of focusing on the organic growth of the company, it is also important to consider the option of expanding further into new non-natural markets for America Movil. The options available are the Asian, European and the Middle East/Africa and North American Market, where the company currently has a small operation. The main advantage of the Asian market is definitely its size; as the continent with the larger population, over 3,879,000,000 according to the World Atlas’ estimates of 2006, and over 10 times the population in South America; it’s definitely the most attractive market to consider. Nevertheless, there are two main barriers that might decrease the attractiveness of trying to penetrate in this market; the competitors and the enormous cultural differences between Asia and Latin America. The competition in Asia represent a huge threat for newcomers, since is the domestic market of China Mobile, the largest wireless corporation in the world with over $275 billion in revenue and the financial power to overwhelm any new entrant. In addition to this, the fact that, as in Latin America, America Movil is familiarized with the economic, social and cultural aspects of the population, China Mobile has a huge advantage and experience with the Asian culture. Europe is also another important market to consider, and the one that America Movil has been closer to penetrate in; however, the same problems arise, with the presence of Vodafone, a British corporation with over $152 Billion in revenue and the advantage of competing in a market in which the company is more familiar with. This in addition to the fact that, as stated in the case, Europe doesn’t seem to be ready to open to competitors from the new world, which mean that America Movil is going to have more trouble penetrating with its acquisitions strategy. Finally, North America doesn’t seem to be an attractive market due to its saturation and low expected growth of only 1. 2% and in the Middle East and Africa America Movil may end up making the same mistakes made by European and North American Corporations in Latin America, which is a weak positioning strategy. These are the reasons why the most feasible strategy is to focus on the organic growth, since the strengths that the company has in Latin America, specially the knowledge of the market, can become weaknesses when trying to expand to new markets where strong competitors already have the advantage of experience and economic power. Merger between America Movil and Telmex International The rapid technological changes in the telecommunications industry and the emergence of new players, combined with the reduction of traditional entry barriers and the rise of alternative service providers are forces that currently represent a huge threat for both America Movil and Telmex International. This is the reason why, taking advantage of being part of Carlos Slim’s Holdings, both companies should be able to establish synergy in the markets where they compete in order to offer a combination of services that would be more difficult, if not impossible, to provide by separate. Nevertheless, due to the significant differences in issues such as the infrastructure and strategies required to operate, a merger could not be the best option, however this doesn’t mean that both America Movil and Telmex International are not able to develop joint ventures or strategic alliances while working in specific project that might, in the long-term, increase their profitability, competitiveness and presence in the Latin American Markets. New trends in telecommunications such as the triple play which offers voice, date and video are rapidly acquiring popularity and obtaining an important share of the market, if Telmex International and America Movil can combine these with the wireless service, there is no doubt that they will obtain an important advantage in any of the countries where they establish. Cited Works Rullan, Samantha. America Movil, The Making of a Mexican Global Latina. 2008. INSEAD The Business School for the World America Movil. â€Å"2008 Annual Report. † 2008. 29th April 2010 http://www. americamovil. com/docs/reportes/eng/2008. pdf. World Atlas. Continents of the World. 2006. 29th April 2010 http://www. worldatlas. com/geoquiz/thelist. htm. How to cite America Movil – The Jaguar’s Next Move, Papers

Thursday, April 30, 2020

The Power of a Book free essay sample

I looked down at the minuscule hand that was jabbing the corner of a hardcover picture book into my abdomen. I stared at my kindergarten buddy’s hopeful face and took the book from him warily. We sat down in a corner of the classroom and he lifted his legs to his chest, resting his chin on his knees anticipating the beginning of a story. I looked from the book to his expectant eyes and then back again. I finally cracked open the cover of the book and started to tell him a story. Yes, I told him a story, but I did not read him one. It was the fourth grade and every month our class met with our kindergarten buddies to read to them. Every month I made up my own new story to hide the fact that I couldn’t read. It was that same year that I was diagnosed with a learning difference. We will write a custom essay sample on The Power of a Book or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page They called it slow processing speed, telling me it takes my mind longer to understand new information. It wasn’t until the end of that year when I finally learned how to read. That said, I didn’t particularly like reading. In fact, I despised it. I remember dreading the days where our class would take turns reading the textbook out loud, bracing myself for the laughter that was bound to come when my turn came around. I stuttered and stumbled over my words, often repeating the same lines over again. I can’t remember the amount of times that I heard â€Å"Just sound it out.† It wasn’t until eight grade when I stumbled upon the book that would change my life. My mother gave it to me; she said it was her favorite book when she was my age. It was called A Tree Grows and Brooklyn and it was written by Betty Smith. It sat on my shelf for a while, alone, no other books accompanying it. Until one day, I decided to pick it up. I don’t remember what compelled me to come back to this book. I might have been bored, I might have been frustrated by my poor reading skills, but I opened the front cover, took in the smell of printed pages, and started to read. I didn’t stop. I fell in love with A Tree Grows in Brooklyn. It was so easy for me to relate to the protagonist; it was as if she knew exactly how I was feeling and what I was going through. Every spare moment I was reading that book. It felt as if a hand had sprung out of the pages and pulled me in, enveloping me in this new world. It took me about six months to finish A Tree Grows in Brooklyn but when I was finished, and closed the cover and clutched the book in my hands, a sorrowful feeling came over me. There were no more pages to turn; no more story to devour. It was in that moment that I knew that I needed more books, more tales to dive into, more adventures to explore. From that day on, reading has morphed into something that is so essential to my life. It is my passion; it is what makes me tick. Reading used to be my most arduous and avoided activity, but now it is the thing that shapes my life. If I have had a bad day at school or am under a lot of stress, nothing calms me more than slipping into a good book. I am still a slow reader and sometimes reading can still be a challenge, but all of that struggle pales in comparison to the amount of joy that I get from a book. I keep almost all of the books that I have read on my bookshelf. I don’t organize them by authors’ last name or by genre. But I put them on the shelf in the order that I have read them. A Tree Grows in Brooklyn is the first. 591 others follow.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Breast Cancer Essays - Breast Surgery, Breast Cancer, RTT

Breast Cancer Essays - Breast Surgery, Breast Cancer, RTT Breast Cancer INCIDENCE Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and has the highest fatality rate of all cancers affecting this sex. It is the leading cause of death among women aged 35-54. In 1999 an estimated 175,000 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. That is one woman every three minutes. At the same time 43,000 will die, at the rate of one every two minutes. The incidence of men diagnosed with breast cancer is rare, however it does occur. Approximately 1,300 men a year are diagnosed, and 400 die annually due to the disease. A total of 75% of all breast cancers occur in women with no known risk factors. 80% of breast cancers occur in women aged 50 and up. The mortality rate would decrease if every woman over 50 was informed and followed guidelines. When confined to the breast, the survival rate is 95%. Studies have shown that more white women than black women get breast cancer, however more black women die of breast cancer because they are not diagnosed at an early stage. SIGNS AND SYMPTONS Most breast cancers appear as a slowly growing, painless mass, though a vague discomfort may be present. Physical signs include a retracted nipple, bleeding from the nipple, distorted areola or breast contour, skin dimpling over the lesion, attachment of the mass to surrounding tissues including the underlying fascia and overlying skin, and enlarged lymph nodes. In most advanced stages of the disease the skin nodules with ultimate breakdown and ulcer formation may be seen. Metastases should be sought immediately so that further spread will not be a factor. Among the common sites of metastases are the lungs and pleura, the skeleton (specifically the spine, pelvis, and skull), and the liver. Whenever possible, distant spread of the disease should be confirmed by a lymph nose biopsy, by x-ray, or by liver and bone scans using radioactive isotopes. WHO IS AT RISK? All women and men are at risk of getting breast cancer. However personal history with family members having breast cancer adds an increase to the risk factor. Contradictory to this though studies have shown that 75% of breast cancer occurs in women with no history and no known risk factors. Not ever having children, or having ones first child after 30 yrs., also increases the risk of breast cancer in women. Heavy alcohol abuse is a risk factor as well. Studies have also shown that women who began menstruation early, twelve years or less, and women who began menopause late, fifty-five years plus, also have a greater risk of breast cancer. PREVENTION There are three ways to attempt to detect prevention, however since there is no cure, one cannot determine what actions to take to prevent. The most common technique for early detection is by a regular doctors examination. The second technique at detecting breast cancer is by a breast self-examination (BSE), and lastly, by mammogram. BSE should begin when a woman is eighteen or older, so that the breast is fully developed. During the BSE women should begin to learn what is normal and what is not in their breasts. Mammography is the best method at detecting breast cancer. A woman should have a mammogram when she is 40 yrs. old, and then one every two years until she is 50 yrs. old. Once a woman is 50 yrs. old she should have a mammogram annually because as ones age increases, so does the risk of getting breast cancer. Many women also need to be educated about the risks of breast cancer and how to detect it early. The majority of women with breast cancer do not know about the fortunate ness of detecting breast cancer early, never mind follow the detection guidelines. TREATMENT Therapy depends mainly on the extent of the disease and the patient's age. If there is evidence of wider metastasic spread, treatment will be palliative. This means that treatment will lessen the severity of pain, however it will not cure. When there is no evidence of spread, the treatment of choice is total mastectomy and modified radical mastectomy. This is an entire or partial removal of the affected breast. In the best circumstances, the 10 yr. survival rate is greater than

Thursday, March 5, 2020

The History of the Freedom Riders Movement

The History of the Freedom Riders Movement In 1961, men and women from throughout the nation arrived in Washington, D.C. to end Jim Crow  on interstate travel by embarking on what were called â€Å"Freedom Rides.†Ã‚  On such rides, racially mixed activists traveled together throughout the Deep South- ignoring signs marked â€Å"for whites† and â€Å"for colored† in buses and bus terminals. The riders endured beatings and arson attempts from white supremacist mobs, but their struggles paid off when segregationist policies on interstate bus and rail lines were struck down. Despite these achievements, the Freedom Riders aren’t the household names like Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr., but they’re civil rights heroes nonetheless. Both Parks and King would be heralded as heroes for their roles in ending segregated bus seating  in Montgomery, Ala.   How the Freedom Rides Got Started In the 1960 case Boynton v. Virginia, the U.S. Supreme Court declared segregation in interstate bus and rail stations unconstitutional. But the high court’s ruling didn’t stop segregation on interstate bus and rail lines in the South from persisting. Enter the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), a civil rights group. CORE sent seven blacks and six whites on two public buses headed for the South on May 4, 1961. The goal? To test the Supreme Court ruling on segregated interstate travel in the Confederate states. For two weeks, the activists planned to flout Jim Crow laws by sitting on the front of buses and in â€Å"whites only† waiting rooms in bus terminals. â€Å"Boarding that Greyhound bus to travel to the Deep South, I felt good. I felt happy,† Rep. John Lewis recalled during a May 2011  appearance on â€Å"The Oprah Winfrey Show.† Then a seminary student, Lewis would go on to become a U.S. congressman. During the first few days of their trip, the mixed-race group of activists traveled largely without incident. They didn’t have security and didn’t need it- yet. After arriving in Atlanta on May 13, 1961, they even attended a reception hosted by the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., but the celebration took on a decidedly ominous tone when King alerted them that the Ku Klux Klan was organizing against them in Alabama. Despite King’s warning, the Freedom Rides did not change their course. As expected, when they reached Alabama, their journey took a turn for the worse. A Perilous Journey On the outskirts of Anniston, Alabama, members of a white supremacist mob showed just what they thought about the Freedom Riders by bashing in their bus and slashing its tires. To boot, the Alabama Klansmen set the bus on fire and blocked the exits to trap the Freedom Riders inside. It wasn’t until the bus’ fuel tank exploded that the mob dispersed and the Freedom Riders were able to escape. After a similar mob attacked the Freedom Riders in Birmingham, the U.S. Justice Department stepped in and evacuated the activists to New Orleans. The federal government did not want more harm to come to the riders. The Second Wave Due to the amount of violence inflicted on Freedom Riders, the leaders of CORE had to abandon the Freedom Rides or continue sending activists into harm’s way. Ultimately, CORE officials decided to send more volunteers on the rides.  Diane Nash, an activist who helped to organize Freedom Rides, explained  to Oprah Winfrey: â€Å"It was clear to me that if we allowed the Freedom Ride to stop at that point, just after so much violence had been inflicted, the message would have been sent that all you have to do to stop a nonviolent campaign is inflict massive violence.† On the second wave of rides, activists journeyed from Birmingham to Montgomery, Alabama in relative peace. Once the activists touched down in Montgomery, though, a mob of more than 1,000 attacked the riders. Later, in Mississippi, Freedom Riders were arrested for entering a whites-only waiting room in a Jackson bus terminal. For this act of defiance, authorities arrested the Freedom Riders, housing them in one of Mississippi’s most notorious correctional facilities- Parchman State Prison Farm. â€Å"The reputation of Parchman is that it’s a place that a lot of people get sent . . . and don’t come back,† former Freedom Rider Carol Ruth told Winfrey. During the summer of 1961, 300 Freedom Riders were imprisoned there. An Inspiration Then and Now The struggles of the Freedom Riders garnered nationwide publicity. Rather than intimidate other activists, however, the brutality the riders encountered inspired others to take up the cause. Before long, dozens of Americans were volunteering to travel on Freedom Rides. In the end, an estimated 436 people took such rides. The efforts of the Freedom Riders were finally rewarded when the Interstate Commerce Commission decided on Sept. 22, 1961, to ban segregation in interstate travel. Today, the contributions the Freedom Riders made to civil rights are the subject of a PBS documentary called Freedom Riders. In addition, in 2011, 40 students commemorated the Freedom Rides of 50 years before by boarding buses that retraced the journey of the first set of Freedom Riders.